A compulsory register of all children not attending school has been proposed by the education secretary, Damian Hinds.
The Department for Education has estimated that 60,000 children are thought to be home-educated, with the number rising annually.
The proposals aim to provide a clear picture of where children are if they are not in state-funded or registered independent schools.
It is also hoped that the measures will help local authorities identify when a child's education is not good enough, solely religious, or if a child is attending an unregistered school.
Speaking to talkRADIO's Julia Hartley-Brewer about the proposals, Mr Hinds said: "It is important to know that all children in the country are receiving a suitable education.
"We do know there have been these illegal schools, and some bad cases where children are being radicalised."
The proposed measures will also aim to increase support for home-educating parents, with local authorities required to provide teaching resources or financial contributions to exam fees.
A public consultation will be open until June 24.