A quarter of women have been tricked into getting pregnant by their partners, a new study has found.
The research, carried out by scientists at Bournemouth University, found that partners had pierced condoms, lied about vasectomies and used emotional blackmail to force women into having a child.
The women, who all attended sexual and reproductive clinics, reported that they had become pregnant against their will.
Scientists searched databases of medical and social sciences research to compile the findings, looking particularly at women's experiences of interference with their reproductive autonomy.
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Evidence unearthed by researchers found that although predominantly perpetrated by male partners, wider families and criminal gangs had also coerced women into becoming pregnant.
The study's lead author, Professor Sam Rowlands from the Centre of Postgraduate Medical Research and Education at Bournemouth, said: "The most common means of contraceptive sabotage are failure to practise withdrawal, as previously agreed, or non-use of condoms.
"Contraceptive sabotage also includes various actions including piercing condoms or other barrier methods, throwing away supplies of oral contraceptives or forcibly removing transdermal patches, vaginal rings or intrauterine devices."