Two former Chancellors were among the 21 Conservative MPs who have been barred from standing for the party at the next election.
Boris Johnson warned rebel members they would lose the whip if they voted against the government on Brexit, however this did not dissuade 21 Tory MPs, who backed a motion which could pave the way for a delay to Brexit if a deal is not agreed.
The group included former Chancellors Kenneth Clarke and Philip Hammond, as well as former Justice Secretary David Gauke and Winston Churchill's grandson, Sir Nicholas Soames.
Rory Stewart came fifth in the leadership contest less than three months ago, and now faces an effective expulsion from the party for his stance.
Justine Greening announced early on Tuesday she would step down at the next election, and called no deal “the most profoundly un-Conservative policy you could possibly have”.
Fellow rebel Alistair Burt called Mr Johnson’s threat to strip the whip from so many senior Conservative MPs a “policy of insanity”.
Mr Johnson has said he will now call a general election, a move that would require the support of two-thirds of the House of Commons.
Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn said: “He wants to table a motion for a general election, fine.”
However he said he would not back a snap poll until no deal was “off the table”.
Liberal Democrat leader Jo Swinson said it was vital Parliament does not enter an election cycle while there is “any risk that we will crash out of the European Union during that election campaign or immediately after”.
The 21 Conservative rebels
Kenneth Clarke: Father of the House and former Chancellor
Philip Hammond: Former Chancellor
David Gauke: Former Justice Secretary
Greg Clark: Former Business Secretary
Sir Oliver Letwin: Former Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
Justine Greening: Former Education Secretary
Dominic Grieve: Former Attorney General
Rory Stewart: Former International Development Secretary
Sir Nicholas Soames: Grandson of Winston Churchill
Alistair Burt: Former Foreign Office minister
Sam Gyimah: Former leadership candidate
Stephen Hammond: Former health minister
Guto Bebb: Former defence minister
Richard Benyon: Newbury MP
Steve Brine: Former junior health minister
Richard Harrington: Former junior business minister
Margot James: Former digital policy minister
Anne Milton: Former minister for women
Caroline Nokes: Former immigration minister
Antoinette Sandbach: Eddisbury MP
Edward Vaizey: Former culture minister